Data Source and Research Methodology


  • Area: All data are taken from Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal and unit used square kilometer.

  • Population: All data are taken from Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal and unit used as number (National Population and Housing Census 2011 ).

  • Castes: Raw data is taken from Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal and categorically separated and calculated to get Dalit, Janjati, Brahmin & Chhetri and Other castes values accordingly. Unit used as number.

    • Castes Listed Under Dalit:
      Mushar, Chamar, Harjin, Sarki, Damai/Dholi, Kami, Dusad Paswan, Dhobi, Khatbe, Gaine, Badi, Undefined Dalits (Source: National Dalit Commission )

    • Castes Listed Under Janjati:
      Walung, Raute, Kusunda, Kushwadiya, Patharkata, Yelmo, Hayu, Raji, Kisan, Lepcha, Meche, Dura, Aadibasi Janjati, Jirel, Barmuha, Bote, Chhantel, Pahari, Thakali, Tajpuriya, Darai, Yakhkhya, Bhote, Dhimal, Thami, Gangai, Jhagardangar, Satar Santhal, Chepang, Praja, Danuwar, Majhi, Sunuwar, Rajbanshi, Dhanukh, Tharu, Gurung, Rai, Tamang, Magar, Limbu, Newar, Sherpa, Dharti Bhujel (Source: National Janjati Commission )

    • Other Castes
      Except Dalit, Janjati, Brahmin & Chhetri all defined and undefined castes are calculated herewith

  • Poverty: The minimum calories needed for the survival of person equals 2144 daily. This calories is transferred into monetary value based on 2060/2061, Living Standard Survey of Nepal. The minimum cash requirement for the survival of a person includes food and non food requirements which equals 7695.70 per year. Those people who are under this acute poverty line has been analyzed and given in the figure. Unit used as number.

  • Agriculture: Basic data is taken from Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal and analyzed accordingly. Unit used as NRS in crore.

    • Total Agricultural Production includes: Grain production, cash crop like fruits, vegetables and area specific crops (Tea leaf sugarcane etc.) and livestock.

    • The highest agricultural potential is calculated based on this assumption: 90% land is fully irrigated, fully availability of high breed seeds and fertilizer on affordable rate, developed farm mechanization, availability of soft loan and supportive agricultural institutions.

    • The potentiality is calculated based on the production level of Hariyana/Panjab, India; i.e.: crop intensity equal to 3; production rate equal to 8 ton per hector in Tarai and 4.5 top per hector in Hill including fruits, vegetable and cash crops. Cost of production 80%.

    • In general there is no taxation on agricultural product. However the state receives tax from agricultural product in the process of exchange goods and services in the market from agricultural product. Therefore indirect state income from agriculture has been calculated.

    • Therefore the highest potential from the agriculture sector can be achieved will be equivalent to 248% higher then the present level of production.

  • Tourism: Basic data is taken from Nepal Tourism Board and Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation. Unit used as NRS in crore.

    • The highest tourist flow of last 15 years was in 2007 and it is 5, 26,705 tourists.

    • Total income from tourist was USD 18, 12, 42,000.00.

    • The average stay of tourist is 11.96 days.

    • Around 1/3 of tourist visits National Parks.

    • From the income of each tourist; 5.4 multiplying factor is used for calculating economically potential.

    • Remaining 2/3 tourists visits Nepal for the purpose of Business, Religious, Mountaineering etc.

    • Out of Total income from Tourism (Nrs. 1450 Crore) only 1042.55 (NRs in crore) could be tracked according to Tourist Destination. The remaining around 400 (Nrs in crore) could not be distributed in district level.

  • Herbs: Basic data is taken from Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation and Herbs Production & Processing Co. Ltd. Nepal. Unit used as NRS in crore.

    • The total potential from Herbs production has been calculated based on zero corruption.  

    • The calculation is based on major herbs ie Yarchagumba (Cordyseeps Synapsis), Chiraito, Ritha, Jatamasi, Timmur, Dalchini, Pakhanbed, Pabanko Boka, Bojho, Sugandbal, Chutro and Majitho.

    • The coefficient of Herbs potential is calculated from the annual increment of forest and annual Royalty of 2063/64

  • Timber: Basic data is taken from Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. Unit used as NRS in crore.

    • The potential income from the wood is calculated based on zero reduction of total current forest area annually.

    • The average annual increment of the forest equal to 5 cub. M. per Hector per Annum. This much wood extraction quantity didn't impact negatively in forest conversation.

    • The royalty is taken as average from those of Sal, Salla, Sissoo, Masala etc equal to 87.5 Nrs. Per cub. M. 

  • Hydropower: Basic data is taken from Electricity Development Board and Ministry of Energy. Unit used as NRS in crore.

    • Total potential is calculated based on the total national capacity 80,000 MW.

    • Total application applied including license issued, Survey completed and running project equal to 39,315 MW.

    • A coefficient is calculated and multiplied in respected district capacity.

    • The potential income of any project more then 1,000 MW capacities is redistributed to the connecting districts.

    • It has assumed life of project is 15 years and capital return period is 20 years.

  • Sand and Gravel: Basic data is taken from Department of Mines and Geology; Ministry of Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. Unit used as NRS in crore.

    • Sands, Boulders and Aggregates are available in all parts of Nepal, however only in plain areas their quantity is enough for export purpose.

    • The sand data is available for Region only. Therefore, the available quantity is evenly distributed to the respective plain districts of those regions.

    • The local level uses of Sands and Boulders have not been considered.

    • The recycling period for increment equal to 10 years.

  • Minerals: Basic data is taken from Department of Mines and Geology. Unit used as NRS in crore.

    • Only economically viable Minerals are included in the calculation. The mineral extraction period is taken as 500 years.

    • The total types of Minerals which are economically viable and are available in known quantity equal to 13. Other than these are not yet researched.

    • Per unit rate of many of these material is based on London metal exchange.

  • Total Resources: It includes Agriculture, Tourism, Herbs, Timber, Hydropower, Sand and Gravel, Minerals. Unit used as NRS in crore.

  • Per Capita Resource Potential: Unit used as NRS in crore.

    • Total Resource has divided by total Population to calculate Per capita resource potential.

    • 1 US Dolor equal to Nrs. 94 is used exchange rate to calculate per capita resource potential in USD.

About Researcher


Engineer Sunil Kumar Pokhrel is working as sr. consultant for National Peace Campaign, Nepal. He did PhD in International Conflict Management (Kennesaw State University, USA) and Post Graduate in GIS (Netherlands), Master in Rural development (Netherlands), and Master in Coexistence and Conflict (Brandeis University, USA). He received Research Scholarship Awards from PON, Harvard University in 2008. He also served as an advisor to National Planning Commission Nepal in 1997.


Now he is involved in supporting the constitution writing process in the issue of distribution and redistribution mechanism of Natural Resources of Nepal. For any further information and details contact:


His research articles can be found on following URL on natural resource potential in Nepal.




"I would like to thank Prof. Mari Fitzduff and Prof. Ted Johnson;Brandeis University USA, for academic support;program on Negotiation, Harvard university for research scholarship award.Mr. Sailendra Ghimire, Mr. Narayan Thapa and Mr. Durgendra Man Kayastha for technical help; and National Peace Campaign as well as Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland for financial support to complete this research." - Sunil Kumar Pokhrel